Lipofuscin is the name given to fine yellow-brown pigment granules composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion.
Lipofuscin is wear and tear pigments
It is considered to be one of the aging or “wear-and-tear” pigments, found in the liver, kidney, heart muscle, retina, adrenals, nerve cells, and ganglion cells.It is specifically arranged around the nucleus, and is a type of lipochrome.
Formation and turnover of Lipofuscin
It appears to be the product of the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and may be symptomatic of membrane damage, or damage to mitochondria and lysosomes. Aside from a large lipid content, lipofuscin is known to contain sugars and metals, including mercury, aluminum, iron, copper and zinc.
Lipofuscin and Relation to diseases
Lipofuscin accumulation is a major risk factor implicated in macular degeneration, a degenerative disease of the eye, as well as Stargardt disease, an inherited juvenile form of macular degeneration.
Abnormal accumulation of lipofuscin known as lipofuscinosis is associated with a family of neurodegenerative disorders – neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, the most common of these is Batten disease.
Pathological accumulation of lipofuscin is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, certain lysosomal diseases, acromegaly, denervation atrophy, lipidmyopathy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,and centronuclear myopathy. Accumulation of lipofuscin in the colon is the cause of the condition melanosis coli.
Reference:Wikipedia article Lipofuscin